INFECTIOUS DISEASE CARE
Infectious diseases (ID) refer to the diseases spread by infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. They are also known as communicable diseases, as they are transmitted from the reservoir/source of infection to the susceptible host.
Dynamics of Diseases Transmission Disease spread requires a susceptible host and an infective agent, in an environment that brings them together:
Mode of Transmission of Infection
Infectious diseases can be transmitted in many different ways.
Vehicle Borne Infections: Transmission through vehicles like water, food, etc. could produce infectious diseases like typhoid and acute diarrhea
Vector Borne Infections: Vectors like mosquito, flies, ticks, etc. serves as a living carrier that transport an infectious agent to the host like Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, Tick fever.
Air borne Infections: They are spread through very small saliva/cough droplets in the air. Examples include , Tuberculosis, Measles, Chickenpox, Swine flu.
Fomite Borne Infections: Fomites are non-living objects other than water or food e.g. soiled clothes, towels, which could transmit infections like diarrhea, eye and skin infections etc.
Unclean hands and fingers: It could lead to intestinal infections
Direct Contact: Unsafe (without condom) physical contact may lead to serious infectious diseases like HIV infection and AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Contact with soil: Contact of soil possessing infective agent may lead to various parasitic infections like hookworm infections and serious diseases like tetanus.
Direct Skin Inoculation: Infective agents may enter into the body through animal bite e.g. rabies due to dog bite; contaminated needles could cause hepatitis B and HIV infection
Apart from these routes, infected preganant mother could also transmit infection to the child (through placenta) e.g. rubella, HIV, etc.